The bill, introduced by Representative Luis V. Gutierrez, Democrat of Illinois, was seen as the opening volley in what Democrats and Republicans expect to be a hard-fought battle. President Obama has pledged to take up the issue early next year; efforts to overhaul the laws during George W. Bush’s presidency failed despite the backing of Mr. Bush and some Republicans.

House proponents of comprehensive immigration reform unveiled their mammoth proposal Tuesday, with hopes that President Barack Obama will give a new push to their cause early next year.

U.S. Rep. Ben Ray Luján, D-N.M., is among 87 co-sponsors of new legislation supported by immigration-reform advocates.

The Comprehensive Immigration Reform for America’s Security and Prosperity was introduced in the House of Representatives on Tuesday by Rep. Luis Gutiérrez, D-Ill.